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Many Flavors of Moon Ice

March 24th, 2010


Since the surprise discovery last year of trace amounts of water on the moon, scientists have been redefining their concept of Earth’s rocky neighbor. Now researchers say the water on the moon comes in three different flavors.

Until recently the moon was thought to be bone dry. But measurements in the last year from the Mini-SAR and Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3 or “M-cubed”) instruments on India’s Chandrayaan-1 moon probe and from NASA’s recent LCROSS mission have proved that wrong.

Mini-SAR found 40 craters, each containing frozen water at least 6.6 feet (2 meters) deep on the lunar surface – which adds up to 600 million tons of lunar ice stuff altogether. LCROSS slammed into the moon on Oct. 9, 2009 and found evidence of water in another crater.

“So far we’ve found three types of moon water,” said Paul Spudis of the Lunar and Planetary Institute in Houston, Texas. “We have Mini-SAR’s thick lenses of nearly pure crater ice, LCROSS’s fluffy mix of ice crystals and dirt, and M-cube’s thin layer that comes and goes all across the surface of the moon.”

LCROSS struck moon water in a cold, permanently dark crater at the lunar south pole. Since then, the science team has been thoroughly mining the data collected from the intentional moon crash.

“It looks as though at least two different layers of our crater soil contain water, and they represent two different time epochs,” said Anthony Colaprete, LCROSS principal investigator. “The first layer, ejected in the first 2 seconds from the crater after impact, contains water and hydroxyl bound up in the minerals, and even tiny pieces of pure ice mixed in. This layer is a thin film and may be relatively ‘fresh,’ perhaps recently replenished.”

This brand of moon water resembles the water M3 discovered last year in scant but widespread amounts, bound to the rocks and dust in the very top millimeters of lunar soil, scientists say. But the second layer is different.

“It contains even more water ice plus a treasure chest of other compounds we weren’t even looking for,” he says. “So far the tally includes sulfur dioxide (SO2), methanol (CH3OH), and the curious organic molecule diacetylene (H2C4). This layer seems to extend below at least 0.5 meters and is probably older than the ice we’re finding on the surface.”

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Augustine Committee

NASA Administrator tells House Appropriators Not to Expect a Budget “Plan B”

March 24th, 2010

NASA Administrator Charles Bolden warned House appropriators on Tuesday not to expect an alternative to President Obama’s proposed 2011 budget for the space agency, a spending plan that calls for the controversial cancellation of the Constellation moon program and threatens thousands of job losses.

Bolden’s remarks came during the first of three congressional hearing this week on the $19 billion NASA budget unveiled by the White House in early February.

Key provisions in the budget would replace Constellation’s goal of reaching the moon with human explorers by 2020 with a five-year, $6 billion initiative to develop multiple commercial launch services that are capable to transporting astronauts to and from the International Space Station. Bi-partisan opposition to the cancellation prompted the White House to call for an April 15 space summit in Florida that some lawmakers believe could become a forum for Obama to reverse course.

However, in a polite, but frank exchanges with the top Democrat and Republican on the Appropriations Commerce, Justice and Science Subcommittee Bolden said there is no “Plan B” in the works.

“With no destinations and no timetables, is that a problem?” questioned Alan Mollohan, the West Virginia Democrat who chairs the panel. “You are not really articulating a vision that inspires. Or are you rolling it out piece meal?”

“Unless something is rolled out, then you will have a fairly significant confrontation,” predicted U. S. Rep. Frank Wolf of West Virginia, the panel’s ranking Republican. Wolf is among 15 House Democrats and Republicans who have called on Bolden to huddle with top agency engineers and scientists to re-think Constellation’s demise before the summit. “Is there an effort to develop a compromise, an effort to look at this thing again and compromise? Or is this just the way it is?”

“There is no alternative plan, no alternative budget,” Bolden responded. “If the question is: Am I developing a Plan B. There is no Plan B.”

U. S. Sen. Bill Nelson, a Florida Democrat has been among those most vocal in calling on the White House to set Mars as NASA’s new exploration goal. Nelson has suggested the president might use the summit to call for a near-term initiative to develop a new heavy lift rocket that would enable American explorers to explore the moon, asteroids and eventually Mars as part of a flexible path strategy for deep space exploration.

Bolden assured lawmakers that NASA intends to sponsor a major research and develop effort that will focus on the technologies for a new rocket, advanced life support systems as well as faster in-space propulsion capabilities that could pull all of those destinations within range. However, it is premature to set production dates for an exploration rocket, let alone a timeline for the first Mars landing, he said.

“We are in competition with China and Russia, and this would put us at a disadvantage,” said U. S. Rep C. A. “Dutch” Ruppersberger, a Maryland Democrat who voiced a concern shared by several of the appropriators.

However, Bolden defended the president’s spending plan and the decision to cancel Constellation by summarizing the findings and recommendations of the Augustine Committee. The White House chartered study committee concluded last year that the six-year-old moon initiative outlined by President Bush was so under funded it could not achieve a lunar landing until well after 2030.

New investments in technology coupled with a push to turn the transportation of astronauts to Earth orbit over to less costly commercial carriers will save money, while leading to advances that will get Americans back to the moon and other deep space destinations faster than would Constellation, Bolden predicted.

“I’m convinced that with the technologies we can develop, we will get there much sooner,” the 63-year-old administrator testified. “We could not go to Mars probably in my life time, to be quite honest. I am convinced that given the opportunity to expend some funds on research and development we can actually do that.”

At one point, Bolden told the lawmakers they need not be concerned for America’s leadership even if China reached the moon ahead of an U. S. lunar return.

As the managing partner in the 15-nation International Space Station, the United States is the undisputed world leader in human space exploration; even if China were to set down on the lunar surface first, most will know America has already been to the moon and has its sights set on new more challenging destinations, he told the panel.

“Sometimes you lead not by being out front, where you are very visible, but you lead by being very influential and being able to get people to do the things you need to do, ” Bolden said. “We do that every day on the International Space Station.”

Later, Bolden told the panel he’d had a change of heart.

“China, it does make a difference to me who is first,” said the retired Marine Corps general and former NASA astronaut. “It’s important that we be first all the time.”


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HOUSTON – The Coalition for Space Exploration (Coalition) looks forward to a thorough evaluation by the Congress of the budgetary framework President Obama has proposed to ensure NASA can sustain a robust and balanced space program of human spaceflight, climate, science, robotics and aeronautics. As the president said in his State of the Union address, […]

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